The urban share of the world’s population is projected to reach two-thirds by 2050. As the increase of waste generation in low-middle income countries is three times higher than upper middle- and high-income countries, management of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become one of the most pressing urban issues for many developing nations. In addition, many of the developing nations still take the “collect and dump” approach in MSW management with an absence of adequate waste treatment facilities. The traditional way of landfilling in an uncontrolled manner is costly both economically and environmentally, as valuable resources are being thrown away without being recovered which contributes to the release of methane from decaying organic waste in ever-increasing quantities. Leachate discharged without proper treatment is polluting the environment in the communities around landfill sites while regular open burning causes health problems for the residents in these communities.
This technical report aims to present lessons learned from Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) projects in Cambodia and Lao PDR and Waste to Energy (W2E)i projects in Vietnam. This report also assesses the market potential, policy frameworks, as well as implementation challenges and risk management with regard to turning the waste issues into an opportunity that will deliver environmental, climate and socioeconomic impacts in the respective countries under discussion. This report also aims to provide guidance and insights to policymakers from countries with similar socioeconomic profiles and international development agencies on unlocking the potential for large waste treatment infrastructure by identifying the most appropriate policy instruments, technology, and financing options.
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